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Pilaf US spelling or pilau UK spelling or Polao Bangla spelling is a rice dish, or in some regions, a wheat dish, whose recipe usually involves cooking in stock or broth , adding spices, and other ingredients such as vegetables or meat,  [note 1]  [note 2] and employing some technique for achieving cooked grains that do not adhere.
At the time of the Abbasid Caliphate , such methods of cooking rice at first spread through a vast territory from India to Spain , and eventually to a wider world.
The Spanish paella ,  [note 5] and the South Asian pilau or pulao ,  [note 6] and biryani ,  [note 7] evolved from such dishes. Although the cultivation of rice had spread much earlier from South Asia to Central and West Asia , it was at the time of the Abbasid Caliphate that methods of cooking rice which approximate modern styles of cooking the pilaf at first spread through a vast territory from India to Spain , and eventually to a wider world.
The Spanish paella ,  [note 8] and the South Asian pilau or pulao ,  [note 9] and biryani ,  [note 10] evolved from such dishes.
According to author K. Achaya , the Indian epic Mahabharata mentions an instance of rice and meat cooked together.
Similarly Alexander the Great and his army have been reported to be so impressed with Bactrian and Sogdian pilavs that his soldiers brought the recipes back to Macedonia when they returned.
In doing so, he described the advantages and disadvantages of every item used for preparing the dish.
Accordingly, Persians consider Ibn Sina to be the "father" of modern pilaf. Another primary source for pilaf dishes comes from the 17th-century Iranian philosopher Molla Sadra.
Pilau became standard fare in the Middle East and Transcaucasia over the years with variations and innovations by the Persians, Arabs , Turks , and Armenians.
It was introduced to Israel by Bukharan and Persian Jews. During the period of the Soviet Union , the Central Asian versions of the dish spread throughout all Soviet republics, becoming a part of the common Soviet cuisine.
Some cooks prefer to use basmati because it is easier to prepare a pilaf where the grains stay "light, fluffy and separate" with this type of rice.
However, other types of long-grain rice are also used. The rice is rinsed thoroughly before use to remove the starch.
Pilaf can be cooked in water or stock. Common additions include fried onions and fragrant spices like cardamom , bay leaves and cinnamon.
Pilaf is often made by adding the rice to hot fat and stirring briefly before adding the cooking liquid. The fat used varies from recipe to recipe.
Cooking methods vary with respect to details such as pre-soaking the rice and steaming after boiling. There are thousands of variations of pilaf made with rice or other grains like bulgur.
Some include different combinations of meats, fruits or vegetables, while others are simple and served plain.
Kabuli palaw is cooked in large shallow and thick dishes. Fried sliced carrots and raisins are added. Chopped nuts like pistachios , walnuts , or almonds may be added as well.
The meat is covered by the rice or buried in the middle of the dish. Armenians use a lot of bulgur cracked wheat in their pilaf dishes. Armenian kinds of rice are discussed by Rose Baboian in her cookbook from which includes recipes for different pilafs, most rooted in her birthplace of Antep in Turkey.
Lapa is an Armenian word with several meanings one of which is a "watery boiled rice, thick rice soup, mush" and lepe which refers to various rice dishes differing by region.
Azerbaijani cuisine includes more than 40 different plov recipes. Traditional Azerbaijani plov consists of three distinct components, served simultaneously but on separate platters: rice warm, never hot , gara fried beef or chicken pieces with onion, chestnut and dried fruits prepared as an accompaniment to rice , and aromatic herbs.
Gara is put on the rice when eating plov, but it is never mixed with rice and the other components. Azerbaijani plov with qazmaq the same as Persian tahdig , served with choban salad.
Polao is a rice dish, cooked in seasoned broth with rice, meat and spices. A polao is often complemented with raita.
The rice is made in mutton or beef or chicken stock and an array of spices including: coriander seeds, cumin, cardamom, cloves and others. The Morog Polao in the division of Dhaka is prepared with chicken.
It is prepared in marriage ceremonies, condolence meetings, and other occasions. It is often complemented with borhani. Rice lightly fried and optionally seasoned , salted and cooked until soft but neither soupy nor sticky in either water or chicken stock is added to chicken stock, onions and sometimes cubed bell peppers cooked in the stock , shredded chicken breast, green peas, tomato sauce, shoyu , and optionally vegetables e.
In the Eastern Caribbean and other Caribbean territories there are variations of pelau which include a wide range of ingredients such as pigeon peas , green peas, string beans, corn, carrots, pumpkin, and meat such as beef or chicken, or cured pig tail.
The seasoned meat is usually cooked in a stew, with the rice and other vegetables added afterwards. Coconut milk and spices are also key additions in some islands.
Trinidad is recognized for its pelau , a layered rice with meats and vegetables. It is a mix of traditional African cuisine and "New World" ingredients like ketchup.
The process of browning the meat usually chicken, but also stew beef or lamb in sugar is an African technique.
In Tobago pelau is commonly made with crab. Central Asian , e. A limited degree of steaming is commonly achieved by covering the pot. It is usually cooked in a kazon or deghi over an open fire.
The cooking tradition includes many regional and occasional variations. Chicken palov is rare but found in traditional recipes originating in Bukhara.
Palov is usually spiced with whole black cumin , coriander , barberries , red pepper , marigold , and pepper.
Heads of garlic and garbanzo beans are buried into the rice during cooking. Sweet variations with dried apricots , cranberries and raisins are prepared on special occasions.
Although often prepared at home, palov is made on special occasions by an oshpaz osh master chef , who cooks it over an open flame, sometimes serving up to 1, people from a single cauldron on holidays or occasions such as weddings.
Oshi nahor , or "morning palov", is served in the early morning between 6 and 9 am to large gatherings of guests, typically as part of an ongoing wedding celebration.
In Xinjiang, where the dish is known as polu, it is often served with pickled vegetables, including carrots, onion and tomato. Uzbek plov being prepared in a kazon in a Tashkent home.
Osh palov , a staple dish in Uzbek , Tajik , and Bukharan Jewish cuisine. Pulao is usually a mixture of either lentils or vegetables, mainly including peas , potatoes , french beans , carrots or meat, mainly chicken, fish, lamb, pork or prawn.
A typical Bengali pulao consists of rice , cashewnut , raisin , saffron , ghee and various spices like nutmeg , bay leaf , cinnamon , cardamom , cumin , clove and mace.
There are also few very elaborate pulaos with Persianized names like hazar pasand "a thousand delights". It is considered very high in food energy and fat.
A pulao is often complemented with either spiced yogurt or raita. Pulao Mangsho , with condiments and yogurt, West Bengal, India.
Matar pulao with peas served with boondi raita and papadum. Persian culinary terms referring to rice preparation are numerous and have found their way into the neighbouring languages: polow rice cooked in broth while the grains remain separate, straining the half cooked rice before adding the broth and then "brewing" , chelow white rice with separate grains , kateh sticky rice and tahchin slow cooked rice, vegetables, and meat cooked in a specially designed dish.
There are also varieties of different rice dishes with vegetables and herbs which are very popular among Iranians. In home cooking mutton and beef are sometimes substituted with chicken, due to higher prices of mutton.
As with Afghan cuisine, Kabuli palaw is a staple dish in the western part of the Pakistan, and this style of Pulao is often embellished with sliced carrots, almonds and raisins, fried in a sweet syrup.
Pulao is famous in all parts of Pakistan, but the cooking style can vary slightly in other parts of the country. It is prepared by Sindhi people of Pakistan in their marriage ceremonies, condolence meetings, and other occasions.
Traditional Levantine cooking includes a variety of Pilaf known as " Maqlubeh ", known across the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean.
The rice pilaf which is traditionally cooked with meats, eggplants, tomatoes, potatoes, and cauliflower also has a fish variety known as "Sayyadiyeh", or the Fishermen's Dish.
Turkish cuisine contains many different pilaf types. Using mainly these three types, Turkish people make many dishes such as perdeli pilav , and etli pilav rice cooked with cubed beef.
Unlike Chinese rice, if Turkish rice is sticky, it is considered unsuccessful. To make the best rice according to Turkish people, one must rinse the rice, cook in butter, then add the water and let it sit until it soaks all the water.
This results in a pilaf that is not sticky and every single rice grain falls off of the spoon separately. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Rice dish. Kabuli palaw , the national dish of Afghanistan. Azerbaijani shah-pilaf. See also: Caribbean cuisine.
Uyghur polu. Tajik oshpaz. Kashmiri pulao with nuts and fruit. Food portal. Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, World and Its Peoples.
Marshall Cavendish, , p. Cengage Learning, , p. Achaya Indian food: a historical companion. Oxford University Press.
The word itself is medieval Farsi, and the dish may have been created in the early sixteenth century at the Safavid court in Persia. Achaya has clearly read a lot about Indian food, but it was in what historians call secondary sources.
To provide full cooking, liquids like broth are added, which add incredible flavor to the dish. Depending upon recipe, a variety of vegetables and meat may be added too, so you can create much more than a side dish with pilaf; it can be a whole and filling meal instead.
Due to extensive trading with the Persians, the dish became particularly popular in most Mediterranean cuisines, including those from Armenia and Greece, and it was also popularized in parts of Eastern Europe, in places like Israel, and elsewhere.
Each culture has created its own version of pilafs. Jamaican pilaf may not taste anything like Russian versions of the dish.
One fairly constant aspect of pilaf is that the grain used is seasoned by cooking it in broth, with various spices, meats and vegetables added.
Usually, any liquids are cooked down or sometimes drained if liquid remains after the grain is fully cooked. Additions at the end of cooking can include a bit of butter, though the dish is often so flavorful it hardly needs dressing up.
A number of dishes take their cue from pilaf. Jambalaya and paella are variants. Fried rice in Asian cuisines is somewhat similar.